What distinguishes the Classical Realists of the mid-twentieth century from other Realist thinkers?

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Realism has been a broadly accepted dominant theory of international relations during the last 2500 years. It was the publications of ‘Politics Among Nations’ in 1948 by Hans Morgenthau, deeply valued study that introduced what later has become well-known as the classical realistic approach to international politics. However, in 1979 Kenneth Waltz with his book titled ‘Theory of International Politics’ attempted to rediscover a further scientific approach to realism, which presently is known as the theory of Neorealism in IR. For both realists, power is a main fundamental notion in political aspect. However, they are fairly compatible with each other. Morgenthau highlights the influence of human nature upon state behaviour, which seems to be very differing from the view of Waltz theory. With this in mind, this essay will primarily attempt to compare and outline the differences of the Classical theory of Morgenthau from the Neoclassical theory by Kenneth Waltz. To clearly demonstrate the differences between the ideas of the two theorists, the key differences in the essay will be presented under the framework of three individual, state and international system levels. (Jackson and Sørensen, 2013, p96)

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What are the conditions required for democracy to flourish?

democracyThis essay will examine some of the core conditions that are required for democracy to flourish. The essay will first consider the “Political awakening”, its importance to the right possession of democratic values, and possible side-effects of its failure. Whereas, the second part will go on to describe Aristotle views towards the existence of a state and its role for the good of citizens; the same part will also explain why the rule of law is more important before the rule of individual citizens. The third part covers the Rousseau opinion on the “General will” and its similarity of Aristotle’s ideology. For the final part, I will attempt to apply those philosophical ideologies on the most recent political developments in the US; Whereas, the first part will focus on Joseph McCarthy, and his political movements in the 1950s of America, and in the second part I will make a comparison McCarthy and Donald Trump, and underline their common approaches to the politics.

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